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Coronavirus: Description video
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This article is about the group of viruses. For the disease involved in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, see Coronavirus disease 2019. For the virus that causes this disease, see Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Coronaviruses 004 lores.jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of Avian coronavirus
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion
Red: spike proteins (S)
Grey: lipid bilayer envelope
Yellow: envelope proteins (E)
Orange: membrane proteins (M)
Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold (which is also caused by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In cows and pigs they cause diarrhea, while in mice they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, one of the largest among RNA viruses. They have characteristic club-shaped spikes that project from their surface, which in electron micrographs create an image reminiscent of the solar corona, from which their name derives.
Coronaviruses vary significantly in risk factor. Some can kill more than 30% of those infected, such as MERS-CoV, and some are relatively harmless, such as the common cold. Coronaviruses can cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever, and a sore throat from swollen adenoids. Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia) and bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis). The human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.
Six species of human coronaviruses are known, with one species subdivided into two different strains, making seven strains of human coronaviruses altogether.
Seasonal distribution of HCoV-NL63 in Germany shows a preferential detection from November to March
Four human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are generally mild:
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), β-CoV
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), β-CoV
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), α-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), α-CoV
Three human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are potentially severe:
Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), β-CoV
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), β-CoV
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), β-CoV
What are the early symptoms of COVID-19?
Everyone should know the symptoms – for most people, it starts with a fever and a dry cough, not a runny nose. Most people will have mild disease and get better without needing any special care.
Which are the most common symptoms of the coronavirus disease?
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are dry cough, tiredness and fever. Some people may develop more severe forms of the disease, such as pneumonia.
What happens when you get the coronavirus disease?
People with COVID-19 generally develop signs and symptoms, including mild respiratory symptoms and fever, on an average of 5-6 days after infection (mean incubation period 5-6 days, range 1-14 days). Most people infected with COVID-19 virus have mild disease and recover
Do people with mild symptoms of COVID-19 need to be hospitalized?
Is headache a symptom of the coronavirus disease?
What is the recovery time for the coronavirus disease?
How dangerous is the coronavirus disease?
Can people get COVID-19 from food?
Who is at risk for coronavirus?
Is the coronavirus disease more severe than the flu?
What food should you avoid during COVID-19?
Can coronavirus disease spread through raw food?
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